Modern Trends in Sports Administration and Management

One of the major factors militating against the development of sports in Nigeria today is lack of effective management. A lot of solutions are being proffered by concerned and patriotic Nigerians daily to bail us out the quagmire. One of such solutions is this text entitled “Modern Trends in Sports Administration and Management”. It is written by Dr. Joseph Awoyinfa, a lecturer in the Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Faculty of Education, University of Lagos, Nigeria; a researcher and educational consultant. I was the person invited by the author and the university to review the book when it was presented to the public on December 4, 2008 in Nigeria.

According to Awoyinfa, it is a truism all over the world that sport is now a reference issue which can no longer be ignored at various sectors of the economy and spheres of life. The author adds that this text thus takes a critical look at topical issues in sports administration and management, dwelling on theories and principles of modern trends in sports administration and management such as leadership, organisation, planning, motivation, etc.

The text contains 16 chapters. Chapter one is christened “the concept of sports management”. Here, Awoyinfa says management is a concept that implies different things to different people at different times, thus leading to its multiplicity of definitions. He explains that management has been variously described as an art, a science, a person or people, a discipline and a process.

This author expatiates that as an art, sports management is all about carrying out sports organisational functions and tasks through people; while as a science, sports management is about establishing sports philosophy, laws, theories, principles, processes and practices. As an organisation, according to him, sports management is defined as a means of creating formal structures and an establishment based on a mission, objectives, targets, functions and tasks.

Awoyinfa says as a person or group of people, sports management may refer to the head alone or to all the senior staff, committee, etc.; while as a discipline, management is a field of study with various subjects and topics. The author illuminates that sports management as a process is about a systematic way of doing things. Awoyinfa highlights management functions in sports administration as planning, organising, staffing, directing/leading, controlling, coordination, budgeting and evaluation. On whom a sports manager is, this author educates that a sports manager is anyone at any level of sport organisation who directs
the efforts of other people towards the achievement of organisational goals sport-wise.

Chapter two is based on the subject matter of evolution and trends of sports management thought. Here, Awoyinfa discloses that the development of thoughts on sports management dates back to the days when people first attempted to accomplish goals by working together in a group. In his words, “There was serious thinking and theorising about managing many years before the dawn of the twentieth (20th) century, which marked the beginning of modern sports management thought. Major efforts to develop theories and principles of sports management began from the early twentieth (20th) century with the work of Frederick Taylor and Henri Fayol. The industrial revolution of the nineteenth (19th) century probably provided the climate for this very serious theorising.”

Awoyinfa adds that since the turn of the 20th century, writers on sports management and business theory have been propounding different theories about how to manage work and personnel more efficiently and effectively. This author educates that the three main schools of management thought are: the classical; the human-behavioural; and the integrative. Awoyinfa also highlights early sports management theorists; principles and characteristics of scientific management; appraisal of the scientific management theory, etc., in this chapter.

Chapter three is thematically labelled “principles of sports management”. In this chapter, the educational consultant explains that sports principles are the basic laws on which the practice of sports management is built. He adds that management principles must therefore be based on general terms for them to be applicable within sport organisations of varying sizes and character. “Modern sports managers and administrators are expected to be able to identify and use appropriate principles that are relevant to particular situations. This is because no single principle can suit all administrative situations,” submits Awoyinfa.

He says the fundamental principles of sports are those applicable to all sports organisations and as a result of their general acceptability, they are sometimes referred to as “universal principles of sports management”. This author expatiates that some of these principles are: responsibility; delegation of authority and communication. As regards humanitarian principles of sports management, Awoyinfa identifies these as democracy, justice, human relations, sympathy, empathy, consideration and humility.

In chapter four based on the concept of behavioural and motivational theories in sports organisation, the author says human beings are unique creatures as they behave differently under different conditions and are mostly difficult to predict. Awoyinfa stresses that since human beings constitute the most important element in sports organisation, sports managers need some understanding of why people behave in one way or the other, so that they (sports managers) can influence people to perform exactly the way sports organisations find desirable.

One potent instrument this author suggests that can be used to elicit performance in athletes is motivation. In his words, “Motivation is something needed in sports organisations to make employees perform.
However, it has been an important and a puzzling subject for sports managers.” Awoyinfa further discusses development of motivational concepts in sports organisation; application of motivational theories to sports management; methods of behaviour modification, etc., in this chapter.

In chapters five to ten, the author beams his analytical searchlight on subject matters such as management techniques in sports organisation; the concept of sports organisation; setting design in sports organisation; the concept of planning in sports administration; making sports organisations more effective in Nigeria and staffing in sports organisations.

Chapter 11 is based on communication strategies in sports organisation. According to Awoyinfa here, communication is a crucial factor in any organisational effectiveness because organisations cannot function effectively when communication skills are lacking among members. “Since communication is the moving spirit in an organisation, its absence may make organisations standstill,” asserts this author.
In chapters 12 to 16, Awoyinfa X-rays concepts such as organisational changes and development in sports administration; leadership in sports administration and management; administration and management of soccer as a coach; teaching human kinetics and health education in schools and colleges; and organisation and administration of schools at various levels of education.

As regards mode of presentation, this text scores a pass mark. For instance, the language is comprehensible and the ideas are brilliantly articulated. The simplicity of the language is expected, given the author’s dual professional background as a lecturer and pastor. To ensure easy study of the text on readers’ part, Awoyinfa highlights the objectives of each chapter at the beginning and ends with review/revision questions.

What’s more, he creatively embroiders the text with graphics (pages 50, 97, 317, 330, 338, 395, etc.) to enhance readers’ understanding through visual communication. Awoyinfa includes references at the end of each chapter to fulfil academic obligation of source disclosure and offer readers opportunities to read more. Inclusion of many references also confirms the depth of his research. His use of visual distinction for the phrase “Modern Trends” in the title is emphatically creative.

If there are chapters that really make this text qualified as a compendium of modern solutions to the administrative and management problems plaguing our sports development in Nigeria, they are chapters four, eight, 11 and 13. This is because they discuss motivation, planning, communication and leadership respectively.

Meanwhile, the thematically greatest chapter of all is chapter four. The fact that it is consciously or unconsciously taken to be the greatest chapter finds practical expression in the deeper communication and cohesion between its subject matter on the one hand and the outer front cover’s allegorical visuals or metaphorical images such as goal post, cyclists racing, a lawn tennis player poised for action with her bat, sprinters competing and footballers struggling for ball possession, on the other hand. These are images used for illustration in motivational discourse.

However, some errors are noticed in this text. The errors are “Acknowledgement” (page iii), instead of “Acknowledgements”; non-paragraphing of the natural first few paragraphs of “Preface”; “Loosing” (pages 396 and 404), instead of “Losing”, etc. These errors need to be corrected in the next edition.

On a note of analytical finality, this text is a compendium of irresistible sports management tips. It is a must-read for all stakeholders in the sports sector, especially managers and administrators. It is simply fascinating.

GOKE ILESANMI, Editor-in-Chief/CEO of http://www.gokeilesanmi.com and Managing Consultant/CEO of Gokmar Communication Consulting, is a Certified Public Speaker/Emcee, (Business) Communication Specialist, Motivational Speaker, Career Management Coach, Renowned Book Reviewer, Corporate Leadership Expert and Editorial Consultant.
For business discussion, reach him on +234(0)8055068773; +234(0)8056030424
Email: gokeiles2010@gmail.com

The Mechanism of Sports Sponsorships

Many sports brand companies opt for sports sponsorship because it is one of the most effective ways to get their brand the right amount of publicity and exposure. Sports sponsorship has become more than just collaboration between business corporations and sports leagues. In exchange for money, sports brand companies get to have their brand names prominently displayed in sporting events or on the back of an athlete’s uniform.

The effectiveness of a sports sponsorship deal is generally influenced by many factors. Sometimes a big amount of money spent cannot guarantee success. By identifying the key factors that may increase the chances of product image enhancement, an investor can successfully plan out their marketing strategy through a sports sponsorship program.

Many sports brand companies nowadays find sports sponsorship as one of the best ways to market their brand name. They can reach their potential customers and loyal patrons better by sponsoring a major sporting event or an athlete in a game. The Asian sports arena is also becoming the focus of many international sports brand. This is because there are so much potential and unexplored possibilities in the Asian market. Sports sponsorship benefit both the sports brand company and the event or athlete they are sponsoring. Of course, the success of sports sponsorship relies on many factors.

Asians, in general, like winning athletes or teams as much as the rest of the world. Local athletes who have won international sports title like Malaysia’s squash darling, Dato’ Nicol Ann David, are often treated as a hero. Therefore, it only makes sense that a sponsorship will probably be more successful if the athlete or team that they are sponsoring wins. This is due to public perception. A brand associated with a winning athlete is often perceived as a good brand, and vice versa. The brand in question may be a moderate brand in reality but associating it with a champion will definitely put the brand in a different light.

Another thing that sports sponsorship can guarantee is visibility and recognition. When Yonex became one of the major sponsors at the Thomas Cup Badminton Championship, they immediately get their brand name mentioned in almost every game. Their logo can be found on every single banner and they gain international recognition which lasts years long. The Thomas Cup may only take place for a few weeks but the impression Yonex made in the public eye extends beyond that. It is these lasting impressions that many sports brand companies find to be priceless. It is definitely worth spending their money over.

Sports sponsorship programs also usually target a certain demographic, suitable to the product or brand name they wish to expose to the public. This is why many investors believe that the event they are sponsoring should also cater to their own target niche. For example, if Nike is promoting a product that caters to a younger demographic, it is probably not a good idea for them to sponsor older athletes that their target market cannot relate to. Instead, they probably will get better results by sponsoring an athlete that belongs in the age group of their target niche. Different target groups need to be reached in different ways. Otherwise, the whole point of sports sponsorship would be moot.

Generally, sports sponsorship aims towards creating optimum exposure of a sports brand company and sending their message to potential customers effectively. The right approach is necessary to ensure that every single cent they spend on sponsorship will bring in more than enough revenue than simply to break even. By knowing their target market and their sports hero, a sports brand company can achieve more than just fame and recognition. They can also maintain their reputation as a winning sports brand that is often associated with prestigious sporting events. That in itself is priceless.

Sports Arbitrage – A Path to Regular Risk Free Profits – Learn More

Sports arbitrage betting

Arbitrage sports betting is a proven way to get regular risk free profits from the massive online fixed odds betting market. In a way it’s like a swoop and scoop of regular small profits from pitting one fixed odds bookmaker against another.

Sports arbitrage betting takes it’s origins from arbitrage trading in financial markets. In financial markets an arbitrage trade exploits the difference in the price of a listed company on a stock market in different countries. 

Sports arbitrage trading is where someone regularly trades price inconsistencies between fixed odds bookmakers on the same sporting event. After all bookmakers are only human and they make mistakes. These mistakes can be exploited by someone who wants to spot them.

In truth a lot of fixed odds bookmakers don’t want you to know this information….but sports arbitrage betting is legal and doesn’t harm the bookmakers business in any case. The returns you can expect from sports arbitrage trading are limited only by the fixed odds bookmakers who cap the stake size. The only investment needed with a ‘sport arb’ is your betting stake, which as you’ll learn is totally guaranteed. 

What sort of budget should I start with for sports arbitrage trading?

Well, this is your decision. Depending on your level of experience we would suggest free sport arbitrage betting with the free bets available from online fixed odds bookmakers. You can increase your budget with your level of confidence. The winnings with sport arbitrage trading can be added to your bank. If you decided to invest a percentage of you bank each time your stake and you profit will increase accordingly.

How do bookmakers lose their money?

Sports arbitrage trading is all about spotting inconsistencies between different bookmakers’ prices that regularly exist.  As a result of mistakes by fixed odds bookmakers an under round occurs. An under round forms the basis of a sports arbitrage bet. Simply the under round is when the total number of probabilities priced by the odds on that event are below 100%. A typical under round is where you would have to invest £96 to get the bookmaker to pay you £100.  Using this example a sports arbitrage bet would give you a return of 4%. You can expect a return of around 4% for sports arbitrage bets.  Sometimes you will get more than 4%.

Sports arbitrage bets win regardless of the outcome of the event without any need for expert knowledge of sports betting or sports. This is one of the reasons sports arbitrage betting has a popular following.

There are two sides to any fixed odds bet, back and lay. Sports arbitrage bets come as back / back bets or back / lay bets.

Lets have a look at how these sports arbitrage bets might look.   

Back / back sports arbitrage

In the week of October 7th there were many arbs between 3% and up 9.17% for the European Championship Qualifiers played that week. Several of these sport arb opportunities lasted longer than normal because of the massive amount of interest in the games.

An example of one sport arb that week is given below: –

Poland Vs Latvia You could bet: – Latvia at 15.0 with Bet365 or Eurobet The Draw at 7.0 Luvbet Poland at 1.35 with several bookmakers including Unibet.com and Nordicbet.com. The odds have been converted to a percentage to make it easier to visualize.

By splitting your total stake Poland 77.951%, Draw 15.033% and Latvia 7.016% you would guarantee a profit of 5.23% regardless of the outcome of the match.

i.e.

Poland 77.951 x 1.35 = 105.23 Draw 15.033 x 7 = 105.23 Latvia 7.016 x 15 = 105.23

Why do these pricing inconsistencies or under round prices occur?

As bookmakers can now operate online, there are now hundreds of online fixed odds bookmakers. They are all competing with one another and are located in various countries and time zones. To be the person who actually prices a particular sportsbook you have to have a massive amount of knowledge of that sport. To compete, fixed odds bookmakers offer loads of sports in their sportsbook, but there isn’t the expertise to cover every sport. They may have the relevant stats but they can’t possibly know every participant and every event. In short mistakes can and do happen. Taking this into account and the difference in time zones you get hundreds of opportunities for sports arbitrage trading every week.

Take two examples. 

When England play soccer most bets with UK bookmakers will be supporting England. Bookmakers may offer the opposition at an inflated price to create a balanced book.

A typical week with four golf tournaments and a couple of tennis events bookmakers may have to price up 800 or so outright odds plus over 400 matches just in these two sports alone. We only need two bookmakers from the many available to have a difference of opinion in one of these markets to create an opportunity.

Back / lay sports arbitrage betting

You can also find a sport arb between the back and lay price (win / lose) for the event.   Back / lay sports arbitrage betting has been made easier due to betting exchanges like Betfair. A betting exchange allows members to lay an event (e.g. for a horse to lose). A back / lay sports arbitrage bet occurs when the price offered by a bookmaker is higher than the lay price available on a betting exchange for the same selection. The difference between the two represents your profit.  Often a bookmaker can be slow to change the price on a favourite when something has happened to reduce the odds. As the price drops on the betting exchange you profit by laying low with the betting exchange and backing high with the bookmaker.

How do we find sports arbitrage bets?

Finding sports arbitrage bets can be time consuming. Spotting them is relatively easy. You just convert the opposing odds on an event to a percentage and see if they add up to less than 100%.

Instead of trawling odds comparison sites we recommend using one of the sports arbitrage services which are available. These companies use software to search for sports arbitrage bets for you. 

What is the first step to successful sports arbitrage trading?

Sports arbitrage opportunities can spring up anywhere; a fixed odds bookmaker in the USA, UK, Europe or Australia. The first step is to open an account with a selection of online fixed odds bookmakers. There are some specific bookmakers who suit sports arbitrage betting because they allow a high stake size.  As you’ll learn it is important to have a bookmaker who allows a high stake when you consider you are making around 4% on each sports arbitrage bet. 

How do I set up a sports arbitrage bet once I have opened by fixed odds bookmaker account?

When you know which fixed odds bookmakers are presenting a sports arbitrage opportunity log into your account with each bookmaker. Have the fixed odds betting terminal of each bookmaker open in a separate browser window. Enter your stake in each one. Click confirm quickly one after the other and you sports arbitrage risk free profit is secured.